Whereas women are expected to comply to their gender role prescribing passivity and compliance, athletes are connoted with an aggressive, competitive nature.
However, I also found that although there are not many stories about women, there has been a steady progression and magazines like Sports Illustrated are becoming bold enough to highlight women athletes in a magazine that is targeted towards a male audience....
According to Anne Bowker in Sports Participation and Self-Esteem, Men have an advantage over women in sports because they're more aggressive and have higher self-esteem (2003).
Some caution should be taken in trying to apply a model from the modern world to the ancient. That sort of determinism, that one set of circumstances will produce one outcome, does not apply in history. In the Kushan period, the exact point in time when Indian art adopted the fully nude image as its representation of the female form, which modern examples tell us is degrading to women is also the moment at which women achieve their greatest authority (at Mathura) in religious activity, judged by the inscriptions from Mathura women form nearly a third of Buddhist donors, and probably nearly half of Jain donors. By contrast in Gandhara, to the north, and in the same period, when the images are more modest, apparently less dangerous to women, they are absent from public religious activity.
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It is hard to say if frank expressions of female sexuality were driven by an assertive group of monastic and lay women keen to assert the importance of 'feminine' attributes in religious practice, or if they show a cultural attitude that fertility and other characteristics made religion a 'separate sphere' more receptive to women's participation, or if they are a means of controlling women's image by a patriarchal society deeply worried by the idea of women. Probably the images result from all of these factors, and some others.
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This gripping program describes the massive human rights abuses that have been escalating since the withdrawal of the Soviet forces, as seen through the eyes of women who have survived years of rampant gender and religious intolerance.
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It examines the submissiveness of upper-class women; a new emerging middle class who are defying tradition and cultural expectations to fight for equal rights; and the indigenous population, who are segregated and discriminated against.