As Jean-Guy Prévost reported in “A Total Science: Statistics in Liberal and Fascist Italy” (2009), Gini’s work was so closely tied to the Fascist state that, in 1944, after the regime fell, he was tried for being an apologist for Fascism.
During the war, Rossellini found himself in the delicate position of acting as technical director for fascist-commissioned films, all the while secretly shooting documentary footage of anti-Mussolini resistance fighters. In 1943, he began work on what many consider the first neorealist film, , in which, utilizing a hand-held camera, Rossellini attempted to approach his subject matter as a spectator rather than director. Unfortunately, he was forced to drop the project, which would be completed by other, more conventional hands three years later. Nonetheless, his brush with cinematic naturalism had left an impression, and, in 1945, he gained international fame with his stark, neorealist feature (Roma, Open City). This film so impressed Hollywood producer David O. Selznick that he invited Rossellini to come to America to direct Selznick's next Ingrid Bergman vehicle. Bergman, herself, wrote an affectionate fan letter to the director, never dreaming what effect this simple gesture of courtesy would have on her life. Resisting the temptation to pack up for America, Rossellini remained in Italy to co-write and direct (1946) and , two of the most influential works of their time. He then switched focus from the devastations of the postwar era to the earthy charms of his lover Anna Magnani in . He finally met Bergman the following year, and their mutual admiration quickly deepened into love. Leaving their respective spouses, Rossellini and Bergman married in 1950, sparking an international scandal that resulted in fervent condemnations from politicians and clergymen alike. From 1949 through 1953, Bergman worked for no other director but Rossellini; the collaboration yielded one truly worthwhile film, , and a series of self-indulgent, critical, and financial disasters.
In order to understand the Fascist movement one must first appreciate the underlying spiritual phenomenon in all its vastness and depth. The manifestations of the movement have been of a powerful and decisive nature, but one should go further. In point of fact Italian Fascism has not only been a political revolt against weak and incapable governments who had allowed State authority to decay and were threatening to arrest the progress of the country, but also a spiritual revolt against old ideas which had corrupted the sacred principles of religion, of faith, of country. Fascism, therefore, has been a revolt of the people. (Message to the British people; January 5, 1924, in Messaggi e Proclami, Milano,Libreria d' Italia, 1929, p. 107).
Originally, the term was used by an Italian political movement that ruled from to under the leadership of (see ). Later, became a more generic term that was meant to cover an entire class of authoritarian political ideologies, parties, and political systems, though no consensus was ever achieved on a precise definition of what it means to be "fascist". Various scholars have sought to define fascism, and a list of such definitions can be found in the article .
Italian Fascism - Essay by Mulquee1N - Anti Essays
Stanley Payne's (1980) uses a lengthy itemized list of characteristics to identify fascism, including the creation of an authoritarian state; a regulated, state-integrated economic sector; ; anti-; . , in his popular essay . More recently, an emphasis has been placed upon the aspect of populist fascist rhetoric that argues for a "re-birth" of a conflated and ethnic people.
Fascism and Communism Essay - 592 Words
I would revise Steele’s description by demoting modernism from an essential to an accidental feature of Italo-German Fascism, not shared by Spanish and Japanese Fascism. If we pull these varieties into the frame it becomes clear that the essential features of Fascism are irrationalism and a totalizing theory of the State. Reactionary Fascism is possible.
Italian And German Fascism Comparison Essay Sample
The reason the “beardies” don’t fit Steele’s frame is that he’s focusing on Italian and German Fascism, which he rightly describes as radically modernizing. The picture becomes a little more complicated if we consider Spanish and Japanese fascism. Spanish fascism, in particular, was genuinely reactionary in the same way that Islamic fascism is today. Japanese fascism combined reactionary and modernizing elements in ways too complex to go into here.