Some nonliterate societies do not engage in warfare. They are a vanishingly small proportion of the world’s native societies, but almost without exception, they are not warlike because they are geographically isolated. The most important variable in predicting a society’s level of internal and external violence is male dominance. Monkeys are (matrilineal), and males leave their society of birth to mate, gorillas and chimps are (patrilineal), where females leave their natal society to mate, and humans have both kinds of pre-state societies, along with some . Patrilocal societies are run by gangs of related men, are by far the most violent, engage in the most warfare, and women are subjected to the most violence. Patrilocal societies can also have harems or many “wives” for the alpha males. Patrilocal societies make up nearly 70% of the world’s native cultures that have been documented. Neanderthals and australopiths . The primary determinant of patrilocal or matrilocal residence in humans is the economic contribution of women. In general, where gathering and horticulture brought in more calories than hunting, women had more influence and the society tended to become matrilocal. Those relationships only hold for societies that are not economically centralized. When surplus redistribution appeared, men began to dominate, and the chiefdom was the first step toward state formation. Organized violence only began increasing as states began to form.
Just as became a strategy for extinction for the world’s megafauna when a , forests are the that Earth has ever seen. Trees are Earth’s “megaflora,” and they suffered the same fate as megafauna wherever civilization appeared. When humans became sedentary, they razed local forests to gain building materials and fuel, and the freshly deforested land worked wonderfully for raising crops, at least until the soils were ruined from nutrient depletion, erosion, salination, and other insults. Domesticated cattle pulled the first plows, which . When humans , beginning about 8 kya, deforestation was easier, so a dynamic arose in the Fertile Crescent in which bronze axes easily deforested the land. The exposed soil was then worked with draft animals pulling bronze plows, and this increased crop yields but also increased erosion. That complex of deforestation, crops, draft animals, and smelted metals yielded great short-term benefits but was far from sustainable, as it devastated the ecosystems and soils and also impacted the hydrological cycle, which gradually turned forests into deserts. Earth was also deforested by the enormously energy-intensive Bronze Age smelting of metal. During the Mediterranean region's Bronze Age, the standard unit of copper production was the (because it was worth about one ox), which weighed between 20 and 30 kilograms. It took six tons of charcoal to smelt one ingot, which required 120 pine trees, or 1.6 hectares (four acres) of trees. Kilns for making pottery also required vast amounts of wood. Wood met many energy needs of early Old World civilizations, which were all voracious consumers of wood.
In the historical period, when technologically advanced humans encountered less advanced ones, there was cultural and genetic interchange, but in the end, the technologically advanced peoples . If any place on Earth could have been used as an illustration of the climate change hypothesis for the megafauna extinctions, ice age Europe would have been it. Ice sheets extended so far southward that Neanderthals lived in relatively few refugia, but I highly doubt that it caused their extinction. Neanderthals lived for at least 300,000 years and survived radical climate changes just fine. Human-agency skeptics have invoked unusually violent climate changes that coincidentally appeared when behaviorally advanced humans arrived around the world, but that seems to be grasping at straws. Again, there is nothing climatically unique about the past 60,000 years, , so invoking climate-change effects for humans and animals that weathered the ice age’s vagaries just fine seems to be a huge conjecture that may be politically motivated. Human-agency skeptics have crafted different kinds of climate explanations for each major extinction, such as drying in Australia, getting colder and dryer in Europe, or getting when most of the extinctions happened. At , climate was a proximate cause, not the ultimate one. The ultimate one was people virtually every time.
The genetic testing that has been performed on humanity in the past generation has shown that the founder group’s pattern of migration was to continually spread out, and once the original settlement covered the continents, people did not move much at all, at least until Europe began conquering the world (and there were some ). There is little sign of warfare in those early days of migration, and the leading hypothesis is that people moved to the next valley rather than be close enough to fight each other. Any conflict would have been easily resolved by moving farther out, where more easily killed animals lived. Also, in those virgin continents, people need not have roamed far to obtain food. Today, an !Kung woman will carry her child more than 7,000 kilometers before the child can walk for himself/herself. If an !Kung woman bears twins, it is her duty to pick which child to murder, because she cannot afford to carry two. That demonstrates the limitations of today’s hunter-gatherer lifestyle, but in those halcyonic days of invading virgin continents (which had to be the Golden Age of the Hunter-Gatherer), those kinds of practices probably waned and bands grew fast. When they they split, and the new group moved to new lands where the animals, again, never saw people before. Unlike the case with humans, there would not have been a grapevine so that animals told their neighbors about the new super-predator. The first time that those megafauna saw humans was probably their last time. It is very likely, just as with all predators for all time, and as can be seen with historical hunting events such or , that those bands soon took to killing animals, harvesting the best parts, and moving on. To them it would not have been a “blitzkrieg,” but more like kids in candy stores. After a few thousand years of grabbing meat whenever the fancy took them, or perhaps less, those halcyonic days were over as the far coasts of Australia were reached and the easy meat was gone. When that land bridge formed to Tasmania about 43 kya, people crossed and were able to , until all the megafauna was gone on Tasmania. They also may have worked their way through the food chain, in which the first kills were the true mother lode. Nobody even deigned to raise a spear at anything less than a until they were gone. Then they started killing smaller prey, which eventually did wise up and were harder to kill, so humans had to work at it again and the brief golden age was over. The as they shaped the new continent to their liking, maybe recreating the savanna conditions that they left in Africa, may have also been used to flush out animals if they began to avoid humans.
Causes and effects of world war 2 – Ensayos - …
Until the 20th century, people had no idea how their activities impacted a portion of their environment that may end up hastening humanity’s demise more than self-made deserts: the atmosphere. Agriculture and civilization meant deforestation, and there is compelling evidence that the Domestication Revolution began altering the composition of Earth’s atmosphere from its earliest days. The natural trend of carbon dioxide decline was reversed beginning about 6000 BCE. Instead of declining from about 260 PPM at 6000 BCE to about 240 PPM today, which would have been the natural trend, it began rising and reached 275 PPM by about 3000 BCE. At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were about 40 PPM higher than the natural trend would suggest. When a forest is razed and the resultant wood is burned, which is usually wood’s ultimate fate in civilizations, it liberated carbon that the tree absorbed from the atmosphere during . , and human activities began measurably adding methane to the atmosphere by about 3000 BCE, which coincided with the rise of the rice paddy system in China. In nature, methane is primarily produced by decaying vegetation in wetlands, both in the tropics and the Arctic, and human activities have increased wetlands even as they made other regions arid. Domestic grazing animals and human digestive systems also contribute to methane production. Atmospheric alteration by human activities has only come to public awareness in my lifetime, but human activities have had a measurable effect on greenhouse gases since the beginnings of civilization, even though the effects were modest compared to what has happened during the Industrial Revolution, as humans burn Earth’s hydrocarbon deposits with abandon.
Essay on world war 2 causes and effects - …
As scientific investigations deal with the human line, the issues increasingly become more complex and difficult to untangle and assess. This is largely because of human consciousness, which is a wild card, something that if not different in kind, is vastly different in degree, at least for land animals; . Designing falsifiable hypotheses for testing human behavior and consciousness has provided challenges not seen in other sciences, and experiments performed on our primate cousins have also become more humane. Dissecting chimp brains while they are still alive is as ethically unacceptable today as doing it to humans. Even today, data on the effects of cold and altitude on humans was primarily gleaned from . Today’s scientists who study human consciousness and its relationship to physical reality have been limited by ethics and what is perhaps the primary limitation: in studying human consciousness, scientists are studying themselves. The ideal of objective examination of the material world is hampered by , and an objective examination of human consciousness, by , may well be an impossible goal.
Cause and Effect of World War I Essay
What is fire? That may seem too-elementary a question, but understanding what it is and where it came from is vitally important for understanding the human journey. The first fires were the quick release of stored sunlight energy that life forms, plants in that instance, had used to build themselves as they made their “decisions,” and it was from vegetation that recently died and was dry enough to burn. The energy was released from burning so fast that it became far hotter (because the molecules were violently "pushed" by the reaction that also released photons) than the biological process of making animals warm-blooded. Hot enough in fact that the released photons' (energetic enough) so that human eyes could see them, in a phenomenon called flames. Flames are visible side-effects of that intense energy release. The rapid movement of the molecules as they rocketed due to that great release of energy is the motion that powers the industrial age. Those rocketing molecules move pistons in automobile engines and , and are behind the damaging explosions of bombs and the propulsive explosions of rockets. For more than one million years, all human fires were made by burning vegetation, and wood in particular. What was fire doing? Energy stored by plants, trees in particular, was violently released by controlled fires for human-serving purposes of warmth, light, food preparation (to obtain more energy from food) and protection from predation, and it also became the heart of social gatherings. Humans have stared into fires for a million years or more.